A pair of ascending neurons in the subesophageal zone mediates aversive sensory inputs-evoked backward locomotion in Drosophila larvae

Animals generally avoid an unwanted situation by escaping stereotype behavior. For example, Drosophila larvae often escape from aversive stimuli in the head, such as mechanical stimuli and blue light irradiation, with rear drive. The response to the aversive stimulation is mediated by a variety of sensory neurons including mechanosensory class III da (C3da) sensory neurons and blue light responsive da class IV (C4da) sensory neurons and this Bolwig organ (BO). How different sensory pathways evoke the rear drive circuit level is still not fully understood.

Here we show that a pair of cholinergic neurons in subesophageal zone, designated AMBS, evoking a strong backward movement upon activation optogenetic. Anatomic and functional analysis showed that AMBS act upstream mDNS, command-like neurons to move backwards. Functional analysis further suggests that special AMBS deliver blue light information from neuron C4da hostility to mDNS to obtain a rear drive, while the hostility of convergent BO information on mDNS through AMB-independent pathway. We also found that, unlike in adult flies, mDNS is removed to a dead-end-evoked retreat into larvae. Our findings thus reveal the neural circuit in which two blue lines of light-sensing different gathered at a command such as neurons to generate driving force behind the strong, and suggest that different but most excessive neuronal circuits including commands such as neurons may be used to push back the driving in response to stimuli different sensory as well as in adults and larvae.


How insects navigate the complex smell of fur, where the location and timing uncertain smelly package,
is still unclear. Here we imaged a complex odor fur along with free-running flies, measured how behavior is formed by a meeting with the smell of individual packages. We find that the navigation is stochastic and not rely on continuous modulation speed or orientation. Instead, it turns stochastic flies with saccades stereotypes, the direction of bias against the wind by the smell before the meeting time, while the amount and rate of saccades remain constant.

Dissection and Live-Imaging Final Drosophila embryo gonad

The gonads of male Drosophila melanogaster embryo is profitable models to study various aspects of developmental biology including, but not limited to, the development of germ cells, biology Pirna, and the establishment of niche. Here, we present a dissection techniques for live-image gonads ex vivo during the period when the live-imaging in vivo is not very effective. These protocols outline how to transfer embryos for imaging dish, choose the right-staged embryos male and gonads dissected from the surrounding tissue while maintaining structural integrity. Following dissection, the gonads can be imaged using confocal microscopy to visualize the dynamic cellular processes.

The surgical procedure requires a great time and dexterity, but we provide insight on how to avoid common mistakes and how to overcome these challenges. To our knowledge this is the first dissection protocol for Drosophila embryonic gonad, and will allow live-imaging during the window of time otherwise inaccessible. This technique can be combined with pharmacological or cell-type specific transgenic manipulation to study every dynamic process that occurs within or between cells in the gonads their natural environment.

 A pair of ascending neurons in the subesophageal zone mediates aversive sensory inputs-evoked backward locomotion in Drosophila larvae
A pair of ascending neurons in the subesophageal zone mediates aversive sensory inputs-evoked backward locomotion in Drosophila larvae

Parasitoid wasp venom vesicles (venosomes) sign in Drosophila melanogaster lamellocytes through endocytic pathway flotillin / lipid raft-dependent

Venosomes is extracellular vesicles found in the venom of Leptopilina endoparasitoids wasps, which transport and targeted virulence factors to ruin encapsulation with lamellocytes egg parasitoids of Drosophila melanogaster larvae host them. Using co-immunolocalization of neon venosomes boulardi L. and one-transported suspected virulence factors, LbGAP, with a marker known as cellular endocytosis, we show that endocytosis by lamellocytes venosomes process is not dependent on clathrin or macropinocytosis and internalization seems to bypass the early endosomal compartment Rab5. After internalization, LbGAP strong colocalizes with flotillin-1 and GPI-anchored proteins Atilla / L1 (lamellocyte surface markers) shows entries that occur through flotillin / lipid raft-dependent pathway. Once internalized, venosomes reach all intracellular compartments, including late and recycling endosomes, lysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum network. Venosomes therefore enter their target cells with specific mechanisms and virulence factors are widespread in the compartment to lamellocytes’ for their Damaging functions.


Transdifferentiation is the conversion of the type of cells that are already differentiated into other types of cells without the involvement of stem cells. This transition is also described in the case of vertebrate immune cells, as well as in Drosophila melanogaster, which therefore serves as a suitable model to study the process in detail. In Drosophila larvae, single-cell sequencing method newest allows clustering of phagocyte blood cells, which plasmatocytes, capable of transdifferentiation into encapsulating cells, which lamellocytes. Here we summarize the available data from previous years on the transition plasmatocyte-lamellocyte, and made an effort to align them with the blood cell grouping based transcriptome to better understand the underlying mechanisms of transdifferentiation in Drosophila, and in general.

Teiresias, the target gene encoding a vain-transmembrane protein immunoglobulin superfamily, is required for neuronal feminization in Drosophila

This study aims to identify the target transcription of FruitlessBM (FruBM), which is the major isoform male-specific transcription factor that induces Frum sexual dimorphisms nerves. A promoter of axon-guidance robo1 factor gene carries a 16-bp palindrome motif Pal1, which Frum binding. Our genome-wide search for Pal1-homologous sequences produce ~ 200 candidate genes.

Ammonium sulphate, Hi-LR™

GRM1192-500G 1 unit
EUR 6.93
Description: Ammonium sulphate, Hi-LR™

Ammonium sulphate, Hi-LR™

GRM1192-5KG 1 unit
EUR 35.05
Description: Ammonium sulphate, Hi-LR™

Ammonium sulphate, Hi-AR™

GRM1273-500G 1 unit
EUR 6.93
Description: Ammonium sulphate, Hi-AR™

Ammonium sulphate, Hi-AR™

GRM1273-5KG 1 unit
EUR 38.54
Description: Ammonium sulphate, Hi-AR™

Ammonium sulphate, Hi-AR™/ACS

GRM3893-500G 1 unit
EUR 6.93
Description: Ammonium sulphate, Hi-AR™/ACS

Aluminium ammonium sulphate dodecahydra

GRM092-500G 1 unit
EUR 6.93
Description: Aluminium ammonium sulphate dodecahydra

Aluminium ammonium sulphate dodecahydra

GRM3878-500G 1 unit
EUR 6.93
Description: Aluminium ammonium sulphate dodecahydra

Aluminium ammonium sulphate dodecahydrat

GRM088-500G 1 unit
EUR 6.93
Description: Aluminium ammonium sulphate dodecahydrat

Ammonium ceric sulphate dihydrate

GRM1203-100G 1 unit
EUR 24.41
Description: Ammonium ceric sulphate dihydrate

Ammonium ceric sulphate dihydrate

GRM1203-500G 1 unit
EUR 109.73
Description: Ammonium ceric sulphate dihydrate

Nickel ammonium sulphate hexahydrate, Hi

GRM1396-500G 1 unit
EUR 49.58
Description: Nickel ammonium sulphate hexahydrate, Hi

Nickel ammonium sulphate hexahydrate, Hi

GRM479-500G 1 unit
EUR 28.6
Description: Nickel ammonium sulphate hexahydrate, Hi

Ferric Ammonium Sulphate 2.5% (Iron Alum)

RRSP501-D 500ml
EUR 7.92

Ferric Ammonium Sulphate 2.5% (Iron Alum)

RRSP501-E 1L
EUR 11.32

Ferric Ammonium Sulphate 2.5% (Iron Alum)

RRSP501-F 2.5L
EUR 18.73

Ferrous ammonium sulphate hexahydrate, H

GRM1026-500G 1 unit
EUR 6.93
Description: Ferrous ammonium sulphate hexahydrate, H

Ferrous ammonium sulphate hexahydrate, H

GRM1026-5KG 1 unit
EUR 44.47
Description: Ferrous ammonium sulphate hexahydrate, H

Ammonium ferrous sulphate hexahydrate

GRM302-1KG 1 unit
EUR 10.08
Description: Ammonium ferrous sulphate hexahydrate

Ammonium ferrous sulphate hexahydrate

GRM302-500G 1 unit
EUR 6.93
Description: Ammonium ferrous sulphate hexahydrate

Ammonium ferrous sulphate hexahydrate

GRM302-5KG 1 unit
EUR 35.05
Description: Ammonium ferrous sulphate hexahydrate

Ceric ammonium sulphate dihydrate, ?Hi-A

GRM298-100G 1 unit
EUR 26.56
Description: Ceric ammonium sulphate dihydrate, ?Hi-A

Ceric ammonium sulphate dihydrate, ?Hi-A

GRM298-500G 1 unit
EUR 119.5
Description: Ceric ammonium sulphate dihydrate, ?Hi-A

Volumetric Sol Ammonium Sulphate 0.5M (1.0N) - 1L

AS2051 1L
EUR 57.58

Volumetric Sol Ammonium Sulphate 0.5M (1.0N) - 5L

AS2055 5L
EUR 170.38

EP Reagent 0.1M Ferric Ammonium Sulphate - 1L

R3001300 1L
EUR 533.25

Ammonium ferrous sulphate hexahydrate, H

GRM3887-500G 1 unit
EUR 6.93
Description: Ammonium ferrous sulphate hexahydrate, H

EP Reagent Ferric Ammonium Sulphate Sol R2 - 1L

1037702 1L
EUR 230.85

EP Reagent 0.1M Ammonium and Cerium Sulphate - 1L

R3000300 1L
EUR 533.25

Volumetric Sol Ammonium Iron (II) Sulphate 0.1M - 1L

NHS2011 1L
EUR 189.48

Ammonium sulfate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE105 250 g
EUR 55.2

Ammonium sulfate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE106 1 kg
EUR 72

Ammonium sulfate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE107 5 kg
EUR 153.6

Ammonium sulphamate, Hi-AR™/ACS

GRM2643-250G 1 unit
EUR 35.37
Description: Ammonium sulphamate, Hi-AR™/ACS

Ammonium hydroxide Reagent Grade

A30227 1KG
EUR 145.59

Ammonium acetate ACS Reagent Grade

A29870 500G
EUR 226

Ferrous ammonium sulfate hexahydrate ACS Reagent Grade

F01085 500G
EUR 307.5

Ferric ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate ACS Reagent Grade

F00665 25G
EUR 253.7

Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate ACS Grade

A30322 25G
EUR 184.48

Ammonium hydrogen phosphate-15N (Technical Grade)

A612922 250mg
EUR 1200
Description: 287488-13-5

Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate 98% ACS Reagent Grade

A30025 500G
EUR 269

Ammonium 1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-Heptadecafluorooctane-1-sulfonate (Technical Grade)

A301920 100mg
EUR 85
Description: 29081-56-9

Ammonium Sulfate, Granular

40100216-1 1 kg
EUR 53.98

Ammonium Sulfate, Granular

40100216-2 2.5 kg
EUR 139.24

Ammonium Sulfate, Granular

40100216-3 5 kg
EUR 233.11

Ammonium Sulfate, Granular

40100216-4 500 g
EUR 37.55

Ammonium Sulfate

09857-85 500G
EUR 35

Ammonium Sulfate

02618-25 500G
EUR 7

Ammonium Sulfate

02618-54 20KG
EUR 163.8

Ammonium Sulfate

02619-15 500G
EUR 8.75

Ammonium Sulfate

02619-44 5KG
EUR 71.4

Ammonium Sulfate

02619-86 20KG
EUR 182

Ammonium Sulfate

02620-04 10KG
EUR 171.5

Ammonium Sulfate

02620-75 500G
EUR 16.45

Ammonium Sulfite

02629-85 500G
EUR 24.5

Ammonium Sulfate

02633-15 500G
EUR 24.5

AMMONIUM SULFATE

A305 1KG
EUR 45.52

Ammonium Sulfate

A2149-500G 500G
EUR 26.4
Description: Ultra Pure

Ammonium sulfate

ADB0060 500g
EUR 74.62

Ammonium sulfate

GE2543-1 1
EUR 19.8

Ammonium sulfate

GE2543-10 10
EUR 98.8

Ammonium sulfate

GE2543-100 100
EUR 9.8

Ammonium sulfate

GE2543-100G 100 g
EUR 45.6

Ammonium sulfate

GE2543-10KG 10 kg
EUR 156

Ammonium sulfate

GE2543-1KG 1 kg
EUR 60

Ammonium sulfate

GE2543-250 250
EUR 12.1

Ammonium sulfate

GE2543-250G 250 g
EUR 49.2

Ammonium sulfate

GE2543-5 5
EUR 55.4

Ammonium sulfate

GE2543-500 500
EUR 16.4

Ammonium sulfate

GE2543-500G 500 g
EUR 54

Ammonium sulfate

GE2543-5KG 5 kg
EUR 103.2

Ammonium sulfamate

GK6102-1 1
EUR 31.7

Ammonium sulfamate

GK6102-100 100
EUR 11.9

Ammonium sulfamate

GK6102-100G 100 g
EUR 49.2

Ammonium sulfamate

GK6102-1KG 1 kg
EUR 74.4

Ammonium sulfamate

GK6102-250 250
EUR 14.8

Ammonium sulfamate

GK6102-250G 250 g
EUR 52.8

Ammonium sulfamate

GK6102-5 5
EUR 102.7

Ammonium sulfamate

GK6102-500 500
EUR 19.8

Ammonium sulfamate

GK6102-500G 500 g
EUR 60

Ammonium sulfamate

GK6102-5KG 5 kg
EUR 160.8

Copper Sulphate

abx186748-5g 5 g
EUR 226.8

Sodium sulphate

PCT0015-1KG 1 unit
EUR 11.84
Description: Sodium sulphate

Sodium sulphate

PCT0015-500G 1 unit
EUR 6.54
Description: Sodium sulphate

Cesium sulphate

MB299-100G 1 unit
EUR 172.51
Description: Cesium sulphate

Cesium sulphate

MB299-25G 1 unit
EUR 40.92
Description: Cesium sulphate

Cerous sulphate

GRM3329-100G 1 unit
EUR 219.76
Description: Cerous sulphate

Copper Sulphate

abx186748-96tests 96 tests
EUR 112.5

Diethyl Sulphate

D444970 100g
EUR 176
Description: 64-67-5

Cadmium Sulphate

C059020 5g
EUR 58
Description: 10124-36-4

Ferrous Sulphate

F307855 10g
EUR 125
Description: 7720-78-7

Adenine sulphate

PCT0801-100G 1 unit
EUR 90.82
Description: Adenine sulphate

Adenine sulphate

PCT0801-10G 1 unit
EUR 9.73
Description: Adenine sulphate

Adenine sulphate

PCT0801-1KG 1 unit
EUR 814.92
Description: Adenine sulphate

Adenine sulphate

PCT0801-500G 1 unit
EUR 452.69
Description: Adenine sulphate

Adenine sulphate

GRM033-100G 1 unit
EUR 80.68
Description: Adenine sulphate

Adenine sulphate

GRM033-10G 1 unit
EUR 8.76
Description: Adenine sulphate

Vanadyl sulphate

RM3817-100G 1 unit
EUR 40.21
Description: Vanadyl sulphate

Capastat sulphate

GA2874-1 1
EUR 102.7

Capastat sulphate

GA2874-1G 1 g
EUR 160.8

Capastat sulphate

GA2874-5 5
EUR 332.2

Capastat sulphate

GA2874-5G 5 g
EUR 438

Neomycin sulphate

PCT1111-100G 1 unit
EUR 60.18
Description: Neomycin sulphate

Neomycin sulphate

PCT1111-25G 1 unit
EUR 15.85
Description: Neomycin sulphate

Neomycin sulphate

PCT1111-5G 1 unit
EUR 6.93
Description: Neomycin sulphate

Colistin Sulphate

PCT1142-1G 1 unit
EUR 51.45
Description: Colistin Sulphate

Colistin Sulphate

PCT1142-5G 1 unit
EUR 205.75
Description: Colistin Sulphate

Mercuric sulphate

GRM1386-250G 1 unit
EUR 124.06
Description: Mercuric sulphate

Neomycin sulphate

CMS214-5G 1 unit
EUR 6.93
Description: Neomycin sulphate

Amikacin sulphate

CMS644-1G 1 unit
EUR 23.36
Description: Amikacin sulphate

Ammonium sulfate, 99.9999%

GX4152-100 100
EUR 259.8

Ammonium Sulfate 1M

40120152-1 100 mL
EUR 20.46

Ammonium Sulfate 1M

40120152-2 500 mL
EUR 52.73

Ammonium Sulfate 3.5M

40121153-1 100 mL
EUR 38.09

Ammonium Sulfate 3.5M

40121153-2 500 mL
EUR 153.6

Ammonium Sulfate 3.5M

40121153-3 250 mL
EUR 69.9

Minoxidil Sulphate

abx184735-1g 1 g
EUR 944.4

Butacaine Sulphate

B690000 1g
EUR 132
Description: 149-15-5

Minoxidil sulphate

C6513-1000 1g
EUR 34

Minoxidil sulphate

C6513-5000 5g
EUR 82

Potassium Sulphate

P698305 100g
EUR 69
Description: 7778-80-5

Potassium sulphate

PCT0011-1KG 1 unit
EUR 18.62
Description: Potassium sulphate

Potassium sulphate

PCT0011-500G 1 unit
EUR 10.18
Description: Potassium sulphate

Kanamycin sulphate

MB105-1G 1 unit
EUR 7.45
Description: Kanamycin sulphate

Kanamycin sulphate

MB105-25G 1 unit
EUR 110.07
Description: Kanamycin sulphate

Kanamycin sulphate

MB105-5G 1 unit
EUR 31.46
Description: Kanamycin sulphate

HiDip Sulphate API-Sulphate API

HD023-10TB 1 unit
EUR 20.51
Description: HiDip Sulphate API-Sulphate API

HiDip Sulphate API-Sulphate API

HD023-5TB 1 unit
EUR 12.65
Description: HiDip Sulphate API-Sulphate API

Ammonium Sulfate, 500g

PC0902-500g each Ask for price

Isepamicin Sulphate

B1955-10 10 mg
EUR 39
Description: broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic

Isepamicin Sulphate

B1955-100 100 mg
EUR 263
Description: broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic

Tobramycin sulphate

GA2734-1 1
EUR 197.7

Tobramycin sulphate

GA2734-100 100
EUR 39.4

Tobramycin sulphate

GA2734-100MG 100 mg
EUR 84

Among other things, the potential CG17716 encodes a transmembrane protein with extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) -like domain similar to Robo1. Indeed, the excess is reduced FruBM CG17716 mRNA and protein expression. In fru-expressing neurons Mal cluster shows sexual dimorphism, we find that CG17716 knockdown in neurons women really changed all neurites all types of men.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.